The number of diabetics in the world has increased, especially in conditions of type 2 diabetes when insulin the pancreas produces increasingly difficult in a sufficient amount to overcome insulin resistance, patients need supplementation of Insulin. So how’s the development of the insulin preparations so far? Health workers, in particular, the pharmacist is obligated to know.
What is insulin?
Insulin is a hormone that is naturally produced by the pancreas. Insulin is needed to transport sugar from the blood into the cells of the body that is then used to produce energy.
The resulting symptoms due to high levels of sugar (hyperglycemia) between high levels of urine sugar, frequent urination, and often feel hungry, while symptoms of low levels of sugar (hypoglycemia), of which the body is quivering, nervous and Restless, cold sweat, irritability, confusion, fast heart rate, head feels dizzy or drifts, hunger and thirst, blurred view of sleep, or compromises, numb fingers on lips or tongue, headaches, weakness and fatigue, nightmares, convulsions, and Missing consciousness.
Insulin therapy should be individualized and are balanced with food intake and exercise. When patients start using insulin to cope with diabetes, the initial dose is just the starting point. Over time, the demand for insulin is affected by factors such as the increase or decrease in weight, changes in eating habits, and the addition of other drugs. Insulin needs often increase and the dose should be adjusted to meet the needs of new insulin levels.
Insulin injected are subcutaneous (under the skin). The location of the injection is generally in the stomach, buttocks, thighs, and upper arms. With rotate the location of injection, patients can avoid lipohipertropi, i.e. an increase in the growth or size of the fat cells under the skin. When lipohipertropi occurs, the area below the skin at the injection site becomes fatty. Therefore, to obtain a good absorption rate and to avoid changes in the skin of the injection site, it is important to rotate the location of injection of insulin.
Types Of Insulin
Insulin types vary depending on how fast the insulin work, maximum working time, and duration of insulin in the bodywork. Because insulin therapy requires increased dosage and always uncomfortable, many doctors recommend the use of basal insulin with insulin given at meal times when needed. basal insulin is aimed at keeping blood glucose levels remained under control during the period of fasting or sleep.
There are two types of basal insulin, namely intermediate-acting insulin (work being) and long-acting insulin (long-work). To resemble the mechanisms of a healthy patient’s body in releasing insulin, insulin bolus (short-acting insulin (short work) or rapid-acting (work-fast)) must be provided to prevent an increase in blood glucose levels after eating.